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Leading Research

Papers authored by ILADS Members

ILADS Treatment Recommendations

The following papers, books and articles are by ILADS members. Reflecting the breadth of expertise of our members, these papers cover topics from the expanding range of Lyme-carrying ticks to the efficacy of antibiotic therapy for persistent Lyme symptoms. All are good resources for clinicians, researchers, patients and advocates who are interested in learning more about tick-borne illnesses.

Please note: these works do not necessarily reflect the views of ILADS or ILADEF.

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Selected On-line and Newsletter Articles by ILADS Members

Additional Leading Research

Selected articles that illuminate and advance the understanding of tickborne diseases and their impact on patients and patient care.


Advanced Topics in Lyme Disease: a helpful guide full of expert diagnostic hints and treatment guidelines for Lyme and other tick-borne illnesses written by ILADS member Dr. Joseph Burrascano.

Journal of Spirochetal and Tick-Borne Diseases: ILADS is proud to provide access to back issues of the Journal of Spirochetal and Tick-Borne Diseases dating from 1994-2002. This journal is a valuable resource for anyone seeking to further their understanding of tick-borne diseases. Issues are available in PDF format.

Gardner, T. Lyme disease. In Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant. 5th ed.; Remington, J.S., Klein, J.O., Eds.; W.B. Saunders Company: Philadelphia, USA, 2001; Chapter 11, pp. 519-641, ISBN: 0-7216-7976-5.
Download PDFs:  Part 1 (5MB) | Part 2 (6MB) | Part 3 (8MB) | Part 4 (8MB)


Journal Publications

Wells, L.; O’Hara, N.; Frye, R.E.; Hullavard, N.; Smith, E. Folate Receptor Alpha Autoantibodies in the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS) Population. J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14, 166.

Nature Springer’s Borrelia burgdorferi: Methods and Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology. Editor Leona Gilbert. ISBN 978-1-0716-3560-5.

Bransfield RC, Mao C, Greenberg R. Microbes and Mental Illness: Past, Present, and Future. Healthcare (Basel). 2023 Dec 29;12(1):83. doi: 10.3390/healthcare12010083. PMID: 38200989; PMCID: PMC10779437.

Ericson, M.E.; Mozayeni, B.R.; Radovsky, L.; Bemis, L.T. Bartonella- and Borrelia-Related Disease Presenting as a Neurological Condition Revealing the Need for Better Diagnostics. Microorganisms 2024, 12, 209.

García-Bretón G, Rojas-Castro FC, Espino-Vázquez AN, Fajardo-Yamamoto LM. Clinical Algorithm and Diagnostic Tools for Lyme Disease. Methods Mol Biol. 2024;2742:239-243. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-3561-2_16. PMID: 38165626.

Garg K, Fajardo-Yamamoto LM, Rojas-Castro FC, Susnjak T, Gilbert L. Building a Binary Classification Machine-Learning Model: A Guide to Predicting Participation in a Lyme Disease Program at a Medical Institute. Methods Mol Biol. 2024;2742:185-237. doi:10.1007/978-1-0716-3561-2_15.

Lahree A, Gilbert L. Development of Organoids to Study Infectious Host Interactions. Methods Mol Biol 2024;2742:151-164. PMID: 38165622 doi:10.1007/978-1-0716-3561-2_12

Misner E, Zhang M, Sapi E. Establishing a Zebrafish Model for Borrelia burgdorferi Infection Using Immersion and Microinjection Methods. Methods Mol Biol. 2024;2742:131-149. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-3561-2_11. PMID: 38165621.

Pruteanu M, Schwarzbach A, Berger M. Adaptive Immune Response Investigation in Lyme Borreliosis. Methods Mol Biol. 2024;2742:77-90. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-3561-2_6. PMID: 38165616.

K Puri B, S Lee G, Schwarzbach A. Reaction Time in Fibromyalgia Patients. Curr Rheumatol Rev. 2024 Jan 19. doi: 10.2174/0115733971276641231201055731. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38314594.

Shan J, Jia Y, Mijatovic T. Use of Specific Borrelia Phages as a New Strategy for Improved Diagnostic Tests. Methods Mol Biol. 2024;2742:99-104. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-3561-2_8. PMID: 38165618.

Tichauer, C. et al., 2024. High dose intravenous vitamin c for Lyme disease: a safety and tolerability study with an exploratory assessment of treatment efficacy. Medical Research Archives, [online] 12(1).


Journal Publications

Case report: Substantial improvement of autism spectrum disorder in a child with learning disabilities in conjunction with treatment for poly-microbial vector borne infections. Offutt A, Breitschwerdt E. August 18, 2023. Frontiers in Psychiatry.

Antinuclear antibody seropositivity in fibromyalgia associated with Borrelia-specific T lymphocytes. Puri BK, Lee GS, Schwarzbach A.  Curr Rheumatol Rev. 2023 Feb 15. doi: 10.2174/1573397119666230215124048. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36790001.

Shor SM, Schweig SK. The Use of Natural Bioactive Nutraceuticals in the Management of Tick-Borne Illnesses. Microorganisms. 2023; 11(7):1759.


Journal Publications

MacDonald, Alan B. December 2022. "Borrelia Infected Neoplastic Glial Cells in Five Patients With Glioblastoma Multiformae." (PDF)

MacDonald, Alan B. 2022. "Brain Herniation Death in Pediatric Cerebral Lyme Borreliosis Followed by Kidney Organ Donation."  (PDF)

MacDonald, Alan B. 2022 "Microbial DNA globular liquid crystal like deposits inside Lewy bodies in four Lewy dementia patients." (PDF)

Johnson, Lorraine B., and Elizabeth L. Maloney. 2022. "Access to Care in Lyme Disease: Clinician Barriers to Providing Care" Healthcare 10, no. 10: 1882.


Journal Publications

Maloney, Elizabeth L. 2021. "Evidence-Based, Patient-Centered Treatment of Erythema Migrans in the United StatesAntibiotics 10, no. 7: 754. (PDF)

Steven Harris, "SARS-CoV-2 related paediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome," The Lancet, vol 5, issue 6, E19-E21, (PDF)

Novel Brain Compartment Tapeworm Larvae-Possible Environmental Initiators of Demyelination in
Multiple Sclerosis. Alan B MacDonald. EC Microbiology 17.5 (2021): 77-85. (PDF)

Alzheimer Plaques visualized by in situ DNA Hybridization with Molecular Beacons specific for Borrelia – a novel histomorphologic application. MacDonald, Alan B. (PDF)

Association of presenting symptoms with abnormal laboratory values for vector-borne illness — experience in an urban gastroenterology practice. Erdman MD, Kossari N, Ye J, Reynolds KH, Blodget E, Mozayeni BR, Rahbar FS. J Patient Cent Res Rev. 2021;8:39-47. doi: 10.17294/2330-0698.1729

Borrelia Invasion of Brain Pyramidal Neurons and Biofilm Borrelia Plaques in Neuroborreliosis Dementia with Alzheimer’s Phenotype. MacDonald, Alan B. Microbiol Infect Dis. 2021; 5(1): 1-11. (PDF)

CR (2021) Case Report: PANDAS and Persistent Lyme Disease With Neuropsychiatric Symptoms: Treatment, Resolution, and Recovery. Cross A, Bouboulis D, Shimasaki C, Jones CR. Front. Psychiatry 12:505941. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.505941

Botanical Medicines Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Artemisia annua, Scutellaria baicalensis, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Alchornea cordifolia Demonstrate Inhibitory Activity Against Babesia duncani. Zhang Y, Alvarez-Manzo H, Leone J, Schweig S and Zhang Y (2021) Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 11:624745. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.624745

Alzheimer Plaques visualized by in situ DNA Hybridization with Molecular Beacons specific for Borrelia – a novel histomorphologic application. Alan B. MacDonald. (2021). Med Clin Res, 2021 6(2): 388-390. (PDF)



Journal Publications

“Repurposing” Disulfiram in the Treatment of Lyme Disease and Babesiosis: Retrospective Review of First 3 Years’ Experience in One Medical Practice. Gao, J.; Gong, Z.; Montesano, D.; Glazer, E.; Liegner, K. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 868. (registering DOI) (PDF)

Efficacy of Double-Dose Dapsone Combination Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Lyme Disease/Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (PTLDS) and Associated Co-infections: A Report of Three Cases and Retrospective Chart Review. Horowitz, R.I.; Freeman, P.R. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 725.

Monitoring of Nesting Songbirds Detects Established Population of Blacklegged Ticks and Associated Lyme Disease Endemic Area in Canada. Scott, J.D.; Pascoe, E.L.; Sajid, M.S.; Foley, J.E. Healthcare 2020, 8, 59. (PDF)

A Clinical Diagnostic System for Late-Stage Neuropsychiatric Lyme Borreliosis Based upon an Analysis of 100 Patients. Bransfield, R.C.; Aidlen, D.M.; Cook, M.J.; Javia, S.  Healthcare 2020, 8, 13.

Evaluation of Natural and Botanical Medicines for Activity Against Growing and Non-growing Forms of B. burgdorferi. Feng J, Leone J, Schweig S, Zhang Y. Front Med (Lausanne). 2020 Feb 21;7:6. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2020.00006. PMID: 32154254; PMCID: PMC7050641.



Journal Publications

Chronic Lyme Disease: An Evidence-Based Definition by the ILADS Working Group. Shor, S.; Green, C.; Szantyr, B.; Phillips, S.; Liegner, K.; Burrascano, J., Jr.; Bransfield, R.; Maloney, E.L. Antibiotics 2019, 8, 269.

Detection and Transstadial Passage of Babesia Species and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ticks Collected from Avian and Mammalian Hosts in Canada. Scott, J.D.; Clark, K.L.; Coble, N.M.; Ballantyne, T.R. Healthcare 2019, 7, 155.

Differentiating Psychosomatic, Somatopsychic, Multisystem Illnesses and Medical Uncertainty. Bransfield, R.C.; Friedman, K.J. Healthcare 2019, 7, 114.

Proposed Lyme Disease Guidelines and Psychiatric Illnesses. Bransfield, R.C.; Cook, M.J.; Bransfield, D.R.  Healthcare 2019, 7, 105.

Presence of Babesia odocoilei and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto in a Tick and Dual Parasitism of Amblyomma inornatum and Ixodes scapularis on a Bird in Canada. Scott, J.D.; Clark, K.L.; Durden, L.A. Healthcare. 2019, 7, 46

Metagenomic 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey of Borrelia species in Irish samples of Ixodes ricinus ticks. Lambert JS, Cook MJ, Healy JE, Murtagh R, Avramovic G, Lee SH, (2019) PLoS ONE 14(4): e0209881.

Single Core Genome Sequencing for Detection of both Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato and Relapsing Fever Borrelia Species. Lee SH, Healy JE, Lambert JS. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(10):1779.

Disulfiram (Tetraethylthiuram Disulfide) in the Treatment of Lyme Disease and Babesiosis: Report of Experience in Three Cases. Liegner, K.B. Antibiotics. 2019; 8(2):72.

The prevalence of Lyme disease and associated co-infections in people with a chronic post-concussive syndrome. Azzolino, Sergio; Zaman, Rashid; Hankir, Ahmed; Carrick, Frederick. (2019). Psychiatria Danubina. 31. 299-307.


Journal Publications

Neuropsychiatric Lyme Borreliosis: An Overview with a Focus on a Specialty Psychiatrist’s Clinical Practice. Bransfield, R.C. Healthcare 2018, 6, 104.

Far-Reaching Dispersal of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato-Infected Blacklegged Ticks by Migratory Songbirds in Canada. Scott JD, Clark KL, Foley JE, Bierman BC, Durden LA. Healthcare. 2018; 6(3):89.

Obstruction to Treatments Meeting International Standards for Lyme and Relapsing Fever Borreliosis Patients, Luche-Thayer J, Perronne C, Meseko C (June 25, 2018)

A Community Study of Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies among Individuals with Prior Lyme Disease in Endemic Areas. Strobino B, Steinhagen K, Meyer W, Scheper T, Saschenbrecker S, Schlumberger W, Stocker W, Gaito A, Fallon B. Healthcare. 2018 June 19. doi:

Human Babesiosis Caused by Babesia duncani Has Widespread Distribution across Canada. Scott JD, Scott KM. Healthcare. 2018; 6(49).

To test or not to test? Laboratory support for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Horowitz RI, Lacout A, Marcy PY, Perronne C. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2018 Feb;24(2):210.
doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2017.09.015. Epub 2017 Oct 10. PMID:29030171 (February 2018)

Aggressiveness, violence, homicidality, homicide, and Lyme disease Robert Bransfield. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. (January 2018)


Journal Publications

Building Bridges between Infectious Disease Physicians and Psychiatrists, Robert Bransfield (November 30, 2017)

Empirical validation of the Horowitz Multiple Systemic Infectious Disease Syndrome Questionnaire for suspected Lyme disease. Citera M, Freeman PR, Horowitz RI. Int J Gen Med. 2017 Sep 4;10:249-273. doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S140224. eCollection 2017.PMID:28919803 (September 2017)

Update to: Application of Bayesian decision-making to laboratory testing for Lyme disease and comparison with testing for HIV. Cook MJ, Puri BK. Int J Gen Med. 2017 Sep 11;10:291-292. doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S145134. eCollection 2017. No abstract available. PMID:28979156 (September 2017)

First record of locally acquired human babesiosis in Canada caused by Babesia duncani: a case report, John D. Scott SAGE Open Medical Case Reports (August 2017)

Application of Bayesian decision-making to laboratory testing for Lyme disease and comparison with testing for HIV. Cook MJ, Puri BK. Int J Gen Med. 2017 Apr 10;10:113-123. doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S131909. eCollection 2017. PMID:28435311 (April 2017)

Suicide and Lyme and Associated Diseases, Robert Bransfield (March 2017)

Lyme Disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, Detected in Multiple Tick Species at Kenora, Ontario, Canada, John D Scott, Kerry L Clark, John F Anderson, Janet E Foley, Monica R Young, and Lance A Durden. Journal of Bacteriology and Parasitology (March 2017)

Detection of Borrelia Genomospecies 2 in Ixodes spinipalpis Ticks Collected from a Rabbit in Canada, John D. Scott, Kerry L. Clark, Janet E. Foley, John F. Anderson, Lance A. Durden, Jodi M. Manord, and Morgan L. Smith. Journal of Parasitology (February 2017).


Lyme Disease takes on Medicine. Daniel Cameron (December 2017).

How Can I Get Better?, Richard Horowitz (February 2017)
ILADS past president and Hudson Valley Healing Arts Center founder Richard I. Horowitz’s accessible text for dismantling the chronic disease. A follow-up to Why Can't I Get Better?, this guidebook helps individuals identify their symptoms, and figure out where to go next.


Journal Publications

Controversies in Persistent (Chronic) Lyme Disease, Elizabeth L. Maloney (November 2016)

Established Population of Blacklegged Ticks with High Infection Prevalence for the Lyme Disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, on Corkscrew Island, Kenora District, Ontario
John D. Scott, Janet E. Foley, Kerry L. Clark, John F. Anderson, Lance A. Durden, Jodi M. Manord,
Morgan L. Smith. International Journal of Medical Sciences (October 2016)

Commercial test kits for detection of Lyme borreliosis: a meta-analysis of test accuracy, Michael J. Cook, Basant K. Puri (September 2016)

Lyme disease: the promise of Big Data, companion diagnostics and precision medicine, Raphael B. Stricker and Lorraine B.  Johnson (September 2016)

Detection of Borrelia americana in the Avian Coastal Tick, Ixodes auritulus (Acari: Ixodidae), Collected from a Bird Captured in Canada, John D. Scott, Janet E. Foley. Open Journal of Animal Sciences (July 2016)

Lyme disease: The promise of Big Data, companion diagnostics and precision medicine. Infection and Drug Resistance, Stricker RB, Johnson L. (June 2016)

Prevalence of the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in Blacklegged Ticks, Ixodes scapularis at Hamilton-Wentworth, Ontario, John D. Scott, John F. Anderson, Lance A. Durden, Morgan L. Smith, Jodi M. Manord, Kerry L. Clark. International Journal of Medical Sciences (April 2016)

Intrusive symptoms and Infectious Encephalopathies, Robert Bransfield. Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research (March 2016)

Approach to diagnosing Lyme disease misses a large proportion of cases. Horowitz RI.
BMJ. 2016 Jan 13;352:i113. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i113. PMID:26762319 (January 2016)


Morgellons: The Legitimization of a Disease, Savely, G. Amazon Direct Publishing. (October 22, 2016)


Journal Publications


In the Crucible of Chronic Lyme Disease - Collected Writings & Associated Materials, Kenneth B. Liegner Xlibris (November 2015)


Journal Publications

Lyme borreliosis: a review of data on transmission time after tick attachment. Cook MJ.
Int J Gen Med. 2014 Dec 19;8:1-8. doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S73791. eCollection 2015. Review.

Divergent Opinions of Proper Lyme Disease Diagnosis and Implications for Children Co-morbid with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Kuhn M, Bransfield R (September 2014)

Evidence assessments and guideline recommendations in Lyme disease: the clinical management of known tick bites, erythema migrans rashes and persistent disease, Cameron DJ, Johnson LB, Maloney EL. Expert Review Anti-Infective Therapy. (September 2014)

Patient-Powered Research Networks Aim To Improve Patient Care And Health Research, Fleurence RL, Beal AC, Sheridan SE, Johnson LB, Selby JV.  Health Affairs (July 2014)

No evidence for contamination of Borrelia blood cultures: a review of facts. MacDonald AB.
J Clin Microbiol. 2014 May;52(5):1803. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02275-13.PMID:24744404

Severity of chronic Lyme disease compared to other chronic conditions: a quality of life survey, Johnson L, Wilcox S, Mankoff J, Stricker RB. PeerJ. (March 2014)

Potential benefits of retreatment highlight the need for additional Lyme disease research. DeLong AK, Blossom B, Maloney E, Phillips SE. Am J Med. 2014Feb;127(2):e9-e10 (February 2014)

Lyme disease vaccination: safety first, Stricker RB, Johnson L. Lancet Infect Dis. (January 2014)

The Establishment of a Blacklegged Tick Population by Migratory Songbirds in Ontario, Canada, John D. Scott, of Research Division, Lyme Disease Association of Ontario (January 2014)
This 2-year study implicates migratory songbirds in the initiation of an inland Lyme disease endemic area in southeastern Ontario. The spirochetal bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner, which causes Lyme disease, was detected in blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, collected by flagging.


Journal Publications

Autism and Lyme Disease, Bransfield RC, Kuhn, MS. JAMA (August 2013)

Borrelia burgdorferi tissue morphologies and imaging methodologies. MacDonald AB. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013 Aug;32(8):1077-82. doi: 10.1007/s10096-013-1853-5. Epub 2013 Mar 12.PMID:23479042

Chronic Lyme disease: liberation from Lyme denialism, Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson. American Journal of Medicine (August 2013)

Borrelia burgdorferi aggrecanase activity: more evidence for persistent infection in Lyme disease, Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology (August 2013)

Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy for Lyme borreliosis: a 'real world' view, Ralph B. Stricker, Delong AK, Lorraine Johnson. QJM (February 2013)


Why Can't I Get Better? Solving the Mystery of Lyme and Chronic Disease, Richard Horowitz (November 2013) From one of the country's foremost doctors comes a ground-breaking book about diagnosing, treating and healing Lyme, and peeling away the layers that lead to chronic disease.


Journal Publications

Risk of malignancy associated with Lyme disease: still up in the air, Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson. International Journal of Cancer (December 2012)

Antibiotic retreatment of Lyme disease in patients with persistent symptoms: a biostatistical review of randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials. Delong AK, Blossom B, Maloney EL, Phillips SE.Contemp Clin Trials. (November 2012)

The Psychoimmunology of Lyme/Tick-Borne Diseases and its Association with Neuropsychiatric Symptoms, Robert C. Bransfield. The Open Neurology Journal (October 2012)

Characterization of biofilm formation by Borrelia burgdorferi in vitro. Sapi E, Bastian SL, Mpoy CM, Scott S, Rattelle A, Pabbati N, Poruri A, Burugu D, Theophilus PA, Pham TV, Datar A, Dhaliwal NK, MacDonald A, Rossi MJ, Sinha SK, Luecke DF.PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e48277. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048277. Epub 2012 Oct 24. PMID:23110225 (October 2012)

Relationship of Inflammation and Autoimmunity to Psychiatric Sequelae in Lyme Disease, Robert C. Bransfield. Psychiatric Annals. (September 2012)

Antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms, Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson Lupus (July 2012)

Morgellons Disease: A Chemical and Light Microscopic Study, Marianne J. Middelveen, Elizabeth H. Rasmussen, Douglas G. Kahn and Raphael B. Stricker (March 2012).

Widespread dispersal of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks collected from songbirds across Canada,
Scott John, John F. Anderson, Lance A. Durden. Journal of Parasitology (February 2012)

Tick-Borne Infections—A Growing Public Health Threat to School-Age Children: Prevention Steps That School Personnel Can Take, Ronald A. Hamlen. NASN-School Nurse (February 2012)


Journal Publications

The pain of chronic Lyme disease: moving the discourse backward?, Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson. FASEB J (December 2011)

Evidence-based practice and health advocacy organizations, Johnson LB, Warren BE. JAMA (October 2011)

Benefit of intravenous antibiotic therapy in patients referred for treatment of neurologic Lyme disease, Stricker, R, DeLong, A, Green, C, Savely VR, Chamallas, SN, Johnson, L. International Journal of General Medicine. (September 2011)

Benefit of intravenous antibiotic therapy in patients referred for treatment of neurologic Lyme disease, Stricker RB, Delong AK, Green CL, Savely VR, Chamallas SN, Johnson L. Int J Gen Med (September 2011)

Healthcare access and burden of care for patients with Lyme disease: a large United States survey, Lorraine Johnson, Aylward A, Ralph B. Stricker. Health Policy (June 2011)

The management of Ixodes scapularis bites in the upper Midwest. Maloney EL. WMJ (April 2011)

'Rare' infections mimicking multiple sclerosis: consider Lyme disease, Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery (April 2011)

"Lyme literacy" and physicians in Connecticut, Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson.  Journal of Pediatrics (January 2011)

Lyme disease: the next decade, Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson, L. Infect Drug Resist (January 2011)


Journal Publications

The Lyme disease chronicles, continued. Chronic Lyme disease: in defense of the patient enterprise, Stricker RB, Johnson L. FASEB (December 2010)

Lyme disease diagnosis and treatment: lessons from the AIDS epidemic, Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson. Minerva Med (December 2010)

Final report of the Lyme disease review panel of the infectious diseases society of america: a pyrrhic victory? Lorraine Johnson, Ralph B. Stricker. Clinical Infectious Diseases (November 2010)

Morgellons Disease in a 48-Year-old Female with Dermatologic Complaints, Savely, V., Kennedy, B. & Ernst, E. Advanced Emergency Nursing  Journal (October/December 2010)

Guest Editorial: Delusions may not always be delusions, Savely, G. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing (August 2010)

Persistent symptoms following treatment of early Lyme disease: false hope?, Stricker RB, Johnson L.  American Journal of Medicine (August 2010)

Lyme Disease: A Diagnostic Dilemma, Ginger Savely. The Nurse Practitioner (July 2010)

Detection of Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, including three novel genotypes in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from songbirds (Passeriformes) across Canada, John D. Scott, Min-Kuang Lee, Keerthi Fernando, Lance A. Durden, Danielle R. Jorgensen, Sunny Mak and Muhammad G. Morshed. Journal of Vector Ecology (June 2010)

Long-term outcomes in patients with early lyme disease: more false hope?, Stricker RB, Johnson L. Clinical Infectious Diseases (June 2010)

The Infectious Diseases Society of America Lyme guidelines: a cautionary tale about the development of clinical practice guidelines, Lorraine Johnson, Ralph B Stricker. Philos Ethics Humanit Med (June 2010)

Morgellons Disease: Analysis of a Population with Clinically Confirmed Microscopic Subcutaneous Fibers of Unknown Etiology, Savely, V. & Stricker, R. Journal of Investigative Medicine, (May 2010)

Safety of intravenous antibiotic therapy in patients referred for treatment of neurologic Lyme disease, Stricker, R, Green, C, Savely V, Chamallas, S, & Johnson, L. Minerva Medica (February 2010)

Safety of intravenous antibiotic therapy in patients referred for treatment of neurologic Lyme disease, Stricker RB, Green CL, Savely VR, Chamallas SN, Johnson L. Minerva Med (February 2010)


Lyme Disease and Tick-Borne Infections: Causes and Physical and Neuropsychological Effects in Children, Ronald A Hamlen, and Kliman, DS. Chapter 10 in Pediatric Disorders: Current Topics and Interventions for Educators, National Association of School Psychologists and Corwin Press (division of Sage Publications) (2010)

Lyme Disease: Information for Parents and Educators, Hamlen, RA, and Kliman, DS. 2010. In: Helping Children at Home and School III: Handouts for Families and Educators. Canter, A., Paige, L. Z., & Shaw, S.(Eds.), National Association of School Psychologists, Bethesda, MD (CD).


Journal Publications

The Need for Clinical Judgment in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Lyme Disease, Elizabeth L Maloney (October 2009)

Gender bias in chronic lyme disease, Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson. Journal of Womens Health (Larchmt) (October 2009)

IDSA Lyme Guidelines: Response to Dr. Gershon's Letter, Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson. Southern Medical Journal (October 2009)

Morgellons Disease: Illuminating an Undefined Illness: a Case Series, Harvey WT, Bransfield RC, Mercer DE, Wright AJ, Ricchi RM, Leitao MM. The Journal of Medical Case Reports. (July 2009)

The Infectious Diseases Society of America Lyme guidelines: poster child for guidelines reform, Stricker RB, Johnson L. South Med J (June 2009)

Attorney General forces Infectious Diseases Society of America to redo Lyme guidelines due to flawed development process, Lorraine Johnson, Ralph B. Stricker. Journal of Medical Ethics (May 2009)

Pediatric Lyme Disease - A School Issue: Tips for School Nurses, Hamlen, RA, and Kliman, DS. NASN-School Nurse (May 2009)

Preventable cases of autism: the relationship between chronic infectious diseases and neurological outcome, Robert C. Bransfield. Pediatric Health. (April 2009)

Complement split products C3a and C4a in chronic Lyme disease, Stricker, R. B., Savely, V. R., Motanya, N. C., & Giglas, B. C. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, (January 2009)


The Role of Parity, Bransfield RC & Bransfield DR. In: Ruiz P, Primm A, eds. Disparities in Psychiatric Care: Clinical and Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Wolters Kluver Health of Lippincott Williams & Wildens (August 2009)


Journal Publications

Chronic Lyme disease and the 'Axis of Evil', Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson Future Microbiol (December 2008)

The Association between Tick-Borne Infections, Lyme Borreliosis and Autism Spectrum Disorders, Robert C. Bransfield, Wulfman JS, Harvey WT, Usman AI. Medical Hypotheses (November 2008)

Serologic tests for lyme disease: more smoke and mirrors, Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson. Clinical Infectious Diseases(October 2008)

Re: Prolonged Lyme disease treatment: enough is enough, Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson Neurology (October 2008)

The American Academy of Neurology Lyme Guidelines: through the looking glass, Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson. South Med J (August 2008)

Update on Lyme Disease: The Hidden Epidemic, Savely,VR. Journal of Infusion Nursing (July – August 2008)

Searching for autoimmunity in "antibiotic-refractory" Lyme arthritis, Stricker RB, Johnson L.  Mol Immunol 2008;45(11):3023-4. (June 2008)

Persistent Borrelia burgdorferi infection after treatment with antibiotics and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Stricker RB, Johnson L.  J Infect Dis (May 2008)

Re: Practice parameter: treatment of nervous system Lyme disease (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology, Stricker RB, Johnson L.  Neurology (May 2008)

Reinfection versus relapse in patients with lyme disease: not enough evidence, Stricker RB, Corson AF, Johnson L. Clin Infect Dis (March 2008)


Journal Publications

Lyme Disease, Comorbid Tick-Borne Diseases, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Robert C. Bransfield. Psychiatric Times. (December 2007)

Rapid introduction of Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) established at Turkey Point Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada, John D. Scott, Min-Kuang Lee, Keerthi Fernando, Danielle R. Jorgensen, Lance A. Durden and Muhammad G. Morshed. Journal of Vector Ecology (November 2007)

Lyme wars: let's tackle the testing, Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson. BMJ (November 2007)

Lyme disease: a turning point, Ralph B. Stricker, Lorraine Johnson. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther (October 2007)

Morgellons Disease: The Mystery Unfolds. Savely, VR, Ralph B. Stricker. Expert Reviews in Dermatology. (October 2007)

Controversy Continues to Fuel the “Lyme War,” Savely, GR. The Clinical Advisor (May 2007)

Contribution of Agrobacterium to Morgellons Disease, Ralph B. Stricker, Savely, VS, Zaltsman, A. and Citovsky, V. Journal of Investigative Medicine (February 2007)


Journal Publications

Chronic Lyme Disease; a Persistent Inflammatory Infection, Ralph B. Stricker and Lorraine Johnson.   Microbe (February 2006)

Coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti: bad or worse?, Ralph B. Stricker, John J. Burrascano, Harris NS, Horowitz R, Johnson L, Smith PV, et al. J Infect Dis (March 2006)

Rash decisions about southern tick-associated rash illness and Lyme disease, Phillips SE, Burrascano JJ, Harris NS, Horowitz R, Johnson L, Smith PV, et al. Clin Infect Dis (January 2006)

Possible Role of Tick-borne Infection in “Cat Scratch Disease,” Stricker, RB, Brewer,JH, Burrascano, JJ, Horowitz, R, Johnson, LB, Phillips,SE, Savely, VR, Sherr, VT. Comment on the article by Giladi et al., Arthritis and Rheumatism (July 2006)

Plaques of Alzheimer's disease originate from cysts of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete. MacDonald AB. Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(3):592-600. Epub 2006 May 3.
PMID:16675154 (May 2006)

Lyme Disease Testing. Philips, SE, Burrascano, JJ, Horowitz, R, Savely, VR, Stricker, RB. The Lancet Infectious Diseases (March 2006)

The Mystery of Morgellons Disease: Infection or Delusion?, Savely, GR, Leitao, M, Stricker, RB. American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (2006)


Journal Publications

Chronic Lyme Disease; a Persistent Inflammatory Infection, Ralph B. Stricker and Lorraine Johnson.   Microbe (February 2006)

Coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti: bad or worse?, Ralph B. Stricker, John J. Burrascano, Harris NS, Horowitz R, Johnson L, Smith PV, et al. J Infect Dis (March 2006)

Rash decisions about southern tick-associated rash illness and Lyme disease, Phillips SE, Burrascano JJ, Harris NS, Horowitz R, Johnson L, Smith PV, et al. Clin Infect Dis (January 2006)

Possible Role of Tick-borne Infection in “Cat Scratch Disease,” Stricker, RB, Brewer,JH, Burrascano, JJ, Horowitz, R, Johnson, LB, Phillips,SE, Savely, VR, Sherr, VT. Comment on the article by Giladi et al., Arthritis and Rheumatism (July 2006)

Plaques of Alzheimer's disease originate from cysts of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete. MacDonald AB. Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(3):592-600. Epub 2006 May 3.
PMID:16675154 (May 2006)

Lyme Disease Testing. Philips, SE, Burrascano, JJ, Horowitz, R, Savely, VR, Stricker, RB. The Lancet Infectious Diseases (March 2006)

The Mystery of Morgellons Disease: Infection or Delusion?, Savely, GR, Leitao, M, Stricker, RB. American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (2006)


Journal Publications

Lyme disease: scratching the surface, Phillips SE, Harris NS, Horowitz R, Johnson L, Stricker RB. Lancet (November 2005)

Chronic infection in 'post-Lyme borreliosis syndrome', Steven E. Phillips, Joseph J. Burrascano, Nick S. Harris, Lorraine Johnson, Patricia V. Smith and Raphael B. Stricker. Int J Epidemiol (November 2005)

Trigeminal Neuralgia and Demyelinating Plaques – MS or Lyme Disease?, Savely, GR. ADVANCE for Nurse Practitioners (September 2005)

Skin Lesions and Crawling Sensations: Disease or Delusion?, Savely, GR. Leitao. M. ADVANCE for Nurse Practitioners, (May 2005)

Munchausen's syndrome by proxy and Lyme disease: medical misogyny or diagnostic mystery?
Sherr VT. Med Hypotheses. 2005;65(3):440-7.PMID:15925450


Journal Publications

Potential Uses of Modafinil in Psychiatric Disorders. Robert Bransfield (2004)

Lyme Borreliosis: Perspective of Scientist-Patient, Ronald Hamlen. The Lancet Infectious Diseases (October 2004)

Treatment of Lyme disease: a medicolegal assessment, Lorraine Johnson, Ralph B. Stricker. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther (August 2004)

Evidence-based guidelines for the management of Lyme disease. Cameron D, Gaito A, Harris N, Bach G, Bellovin S, Bock K, Bock S, Burrascano J, Dickey C, Horowitz R, Phillips S, Meer-Scherrer L, Raxlen B, Sherr V, Smith H, Smith P, Stricker R; ILADS Working Group.Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2004;2(1 Suppl):S1-13.
PMID:15581390 (2004)

Human babesiosis--an unrecorded reality. Absence of formal registry undermines its detection, diagnosis and treatment, suggesting need for immediate mandatory reporting. Sherr VT. Med Hypotheses. 2004;63(4):609-15.PMID:15325004 (2004)


Journal Publications


Journal Publications

Liegner KB. Lyme Disease Controversy: Use and Misuse of Language. Annals of Internal Medicine (November 2002)


Journal Publications

Treatment of patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease, Bransfield RC, Brand S, Sherr V.  N Engl J Med. (November 2001)

Birds Disperse Ixodid (Acari: Ixodidae) and Borrelia burgdorferi-Infected Ticks in Canada,
John D. Scott  Keerthi Fernando  Satyendra N. Banerjee Lance A. Durden  Sean K. Byrne Maya Banerjee Robert B. Mann Muhammad G. Morshed. Journal of Medical Entomology (July 2001)


Journal Publications

Panic attacks may reveal previously unsuspected chronic disseminated lyme disease.
Sherr VT. J Psychiatr Pract. 2000 Nov;6(6):352-6.PMID:15990495 (November 2000)

Long-term outcomes of Lyme disease. Sherr VT. JAMA. 2000 Jun 21;283(23):3068-9.

1990s and before

Journal Publications

Repeated Antibiotic Treatment in Chronic Lyme Disease, Brian A. Fallon, Felice Tager, John Keilp, Nicola Weiss,Michael R. Liebowitz, Lesley Fein, Kenneth Liegner. Journal of Spirochetal and Tick-borne Diseases (January 1999)

Case Report: Lyme Disease and Complex Seizures, Robert Bransfield. Journal of Spirochetal and Tick-borne Diseases (Fall/Winter 1999)

The Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Lyme Disease, Robert C. Bransfield. JAMA (September 1998)

American College of Physicians Guidelines for the Clinical Diagnosis of Lyme Disease (Letter). Liegner KB, Kochevar JM. Ann Intern Med. 1998;129(5):422. (September 1998)

Functional Brain Imaging and Neuropsychological Testing in Lyme Disease, Fallon BA, Das S, Plutchok JJ, Tager F, Liegner K, Van Heertum R. Clinical Infectious Diseases (July 1997)

Lyme Disease and the Clinical Spectrum of Antibiotic-Responsive Chronic Meningoencephalomyelitides, Liegner KB, Duray P, Agricola M, Rosenkilde C, Yannuzzi L, Ziska M, Tilton R, Hulinska D, Hubbard J, Fallon. J Spirochetal and Tick-borne Dis (1997)

Late-stage Neuropsychiatric Lyme Borreliosis. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment. Fallon BA, Schwartzberg M, Bransfield R, Zimmerman B, Scotti A, Weber CA, Liebowitz MR. Psychosomatics (May-Jun 1995)

Antigens of Lyme disease of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi inhibits antigen or mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, Chiao JW, Pavia C, Riley M, Altmann-Lasekan W, Abolhassani M, Liegner K, Mittelman A. Federation of European Microbiological Societies Immunology and Medical Microbiology (February 1994)

B. burgdorferi: Seek and Ye Shall Find - Expanding the Envelope,Liegner KB. (Editorial) J Spirochetal & Tick-borne Dis 1994;1:79-81.

Lyme Disease: The Sensible Pursuit of Answers, Liegner KB. (Guest Commentary). Journal of Clinical Microbiology (August 1993)

Recurrent Erythema Migrans Despite Extended Antibiotic Treatment with Minocycline in a Patient with Persisting B. burgdorferi Infection, Liegner KB, Shapiro JR, Ramsay D, Halperin AJ, Hogrefe W, Kong L.  J Amer Acad Derm 1993;28:312-4. (February 1993)

Prevention of Lyme Disease After Tick Bites, Kenneth B. Liegner. (Letter) New England Journal of Medicine (January 1993)

Antimicrobial Prophylaxis After Tick Bites, Liegner KB. (Letter). N Engl J Med 1993;328:1417-1420. (May 1993)

Minocycline in Lyme Disease, Kenneth Leigner. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1992;26:263-264. (Reply to Letter to Editor). J Amer Acad Derm 1993;28:131. (February 1992)

Gestational Lyme borreliosis. Implications for the fetus. MacDonald AB.Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1989 Nov;15(4):657-77. Review. PMID:2685924 (November 1989)

Temporal arteritis associated with Borrelia infection. A case report. Pizzarello LD, MacDonald AB, Semlear R, DiLeo F, Berger B. J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1989 Mar;9(1):3-6. PMID:2522942 (March 1989)

Use of an autologous antigen in the serologic testing of patients with erythema migrans of Lyme disease. Berger BW, MacDonald AB, Benach JL.J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988 Jun;18(6):1243-6.
PMID:3290287 (June 1988)

Lyme disease. A neuro-ophthalmologic view. MacDonald AB. J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1987 Dec;7(4):185-90. Review. PMID:2963023 (December 1987)

Stillbirth following maternal Lyme disease. MacDonald AB, Benach JL, Burgdorfer W. N Y State J Med. 1987 Nov;87(11):615-6. PMID:3480464 (November 1987)

Human fetal borreliosis, toxemia of pregnancy, and fetal death. MacDonald AB.
Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1986 Dec;263(1-2):189-200. PMID:3554838 (December 1986)

Serological evidence for simultaneous occurrences of Lyme disease and babesiosis.
Benach JL, Coleman JL, Habicht GS, MacDonald A, Grunwaldt E, Giron JA. J Infect Dis. 1985 Sep;152(3):473-7. PMID:4031555 (September 1985)

Additional Leading Research

Detection of Babesia odocoilei in Humans with Babesiosis Symptoms. Scott, J.D.; Sajid, M.S.; Pascoe, E.L.; Foley, J.E. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 947. (PDF)

Study finds evidence of persistent Lyme infection in brain despite aggressive antibiotic therapy. By Leslie Tate, Tulane News, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, May 2021.

Late Disseminated Lyme Disease: Associated Pathology and Spirochete Persistence Posttreatment in Rhesus Macaques.Crossland NA, Alvarez X, Embers ME. Am J Pathol. 2018 Mar;188(3):672-682. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2017.11.005. Epub 2017 Dec 12.PMID:29242055

Variable manifestations, diverse seroreactivity and post-treatment persistence in non-human primates exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi by tick feeding. Monica E. Embers, Nicole R. Hasenkampf,, Mary B. Jacobs, Amanda C. Tardo, Lara A. Doyle-Meyers, Mario T. Philipp, Emir Hodzic (December 2017)

Study finds that living B. burgdorferi spirochetes were found in ticks that fed upon the primates, and in multiple primate organs after treatment with 28 days of oral doxycycline. The results also showed that the immune response to the bacteria varied widely in both treated and untreated subjects.

Current Efforts in Lyme Disease Research, 2017 The National Institute on Allergy and Infectious Diseases
A comprehensive overview of the state of Lyme disease research, including information on recent advances and future plans for study.

A Drug Combination Screen Identifies Drugs Active against Amoxicillin-Induced Round Bodies of In Vitro Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters from an FDA Drug Library.Feng J, Shi W, Zhang S, Sullivan D, Auwaerter PG, Zhang Y.Front Microbiol. 2016 May 23;7:743. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00743. eCollection 2016.PMID:27242757

Identification of new drug candidates against Borrelia burgdorferi using high-throughput screening.
Pothineni VR, Wagh D, Babar MM, Inayathullah M, Solow-Cordero D, Kim KM, Samineni AV, Parekh MB, Tayebi L, Rajadas JDrug Des Devel Ther. 2016 Apr 1;10:1307-22. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S101486. eCollection 2016.PMID:27103785

Eradication of Biofilm-Like Microcolony Structures of Borrelia burgdorferi by Daunomycin and Daptomycin but not Mitomycin C in Combination with Doxycycline and Cefuroxime.
Feng J, Weitner M, Shi W, Zhang S, Zhang Y.Front Microbiol. 2016 Feb 10;7:62. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00062. eCollection 2016.PMID:26903956

Evidence of In Vivo Existence of Borrelia Biofilm in Borrelial Lymphocytomas.
Sapi E, Balasubramanian K, Poruri A, Maghsoudlou JS, Socarras KM, Timmaraju AV, Filush KR, Gupta K, Shaikh S, Theophilus PA, Luecke DF, MacDonald A, Zelger B.Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp). 2016 Feb 9;6(1):9-24. doi: 10.1556/1886.2015.00049. eCollection 2016 Mar.PMID:27141311

Persister mechanisms in Borrelia burgdorferi: implications for improved intervention.Feng J, Shi W, Zhang S, Zhang Y. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2015 Aug;4(8):e51. doi: 10.1038/emi.2015.51. Epub 2015 Aug 19. Erratum in: Emerg Microbes Infect. 2015;4:e56.PMID:26421273

Borrelia burgdorferi, the Causative Agent of Lyme Disease, Forms Drug-Tolerant Persister Cells.
Sharma B, Brown AV, Matluck NE, Hu LT, Lewis K. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Aug;59(8):4616-24. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00864-15. Epub 2015 May 26.PMID:26014929

Biofilm formation by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.Timmaraju VA, Theophilus PA, Balasubramanian K, Shakih S, Luecke DF, Sapi E.FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2015 Aug;362(15):fnv120. doi: 10.1093/femsle/fnv120. Epub 2015 Jul 24.PMID:26208529

Identification of novel activity against Borrelia burgdorferi persisters using an FDA approved drug library.Feng J, Wang T, Shi W, Zhang S, Sullivan D, Auwaerter PG, Zhang Y.Emerg Microbes Infect. 2014 Jul;3(7):e49. doi: 10.1038/emi.2014.53. Epub 2014 Jul 2.PMID:26038747

Ongoing discussion about the US clinical Lyme trials. Fallon BA, Petkova E, Keilp JG, Britton CB.
Am J Med. 2014 Feb;127(2):e7. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2013.09.005. PMID:24462018

Review of evidence for immune evasion and persistent infection in Lyme, Keith Berndtson (April 2013)
Accumulating evidence indicates that Lyme disease spirochetes are adapted to persist in immune-competent hosts, and that they are able to remain infective despite aggressive antibiotic challenge..

Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in rhesus macaques following antibiotic treatment of disseminated infection. Embers ME, Barthold SW, Borda JT, Bowers L, Doyle L, Hodzic E, Jacobs MB, Hasenkampf NR, Martin DS, Narasimhan S, Phillippi-Falkenstein KM, Purcell JE, Ratterree MS, Philipp MT.
PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e29914. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029914. Epub 2012 Jan 11. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2013;8(9). doi:10.1371/annotation/f84663e3-0a2c-4243-8f97-3a58133c1b0f. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):10.1371/annotation/4cafed66-fb84-4589-a001-131d9c50aea6.PMID:22253822

A reappraisal of the US Clinical trials of post-treatment lyme disease syndrome.Fallon BA, Petkova E, Keilp JG, Britton CB.Open Neurol J. 2012;6:79-87. doi: 10.2174/1874205X01206010079. Epub 2012 Oct 5.PMID:23091568

Characterization of biofilm formation by Borrelia burgdorferi in vitro. Sapi E, Bastian SL, Mpoy CM, Scott S, Rattelle A, Pabbati N, Poruri A, Burugu D, Theophilus PA, Pham TV, Datar A, Dhaliwal NK, MacDonald A, Rossi MJ, Sinha SK, Luecke DF. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e48277.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048277 .  Epub 2012 Oct 24.PMID:23110225

Distinct cerebrospinal fluid proteomes differentiate post-treatment lyme disease from chronic fatigue syndrome. Schutzer SE, Angel TE, Liu T, Schepmoes AA, Clauss TR, Adkins JN, Camp DG, Holland BK, Bergquist J, Coyle PK, Smith RD, Fallon BA, Natelson BH.PLoS One. 2011 Feb 23;6(2):e17287. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017287.PMID:21383843

Critical Needs and Gaps in Understanding Prevention, Amelioration, and Resolution of Lyme and Other Tick-Borne Diseases: The Short-Term and Long-Term Outcomes: Workshop Report. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Lyme Disease and Other Tick-Borne Diseases: The State of the Science.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011.PMID:21977545

The Johns Hopkins Lyme Center offers a repository of research on a range of topics:

  • Development of a Multiantigen Panel for Improved Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection in Early Lyme Disease. Lauren J. Lahey, Michael W. Panas, Rong Mao, Michelle Delanoy, John J. Flanagan, Steven R. Binder, Alison W. Rebman, Jose G. Montoya, Mark J. Soloski, Allen C. Steere, Raymond J. Dattwyler, Paul M. Arnaboldi, John N. Aucott, William H. Robinson. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Volume 53, Issue 12, December 2015. The article shows that a newly developed 10-antigen panel can improve sensitivity of blood testing in early Lyme disease.
  • Living in Limbo: Contested Narratives of Patients with Chronic Symptoms Following Lyme Disease. Alison W. Rebman, John N. Aucott, Eric R. Weinstein, Kathleen T. Bechtold, Katherine C. Smith, Lori Leonard. Qualitative Health Research. December 1, 2015. Similar to other contested or medically unexplained syndromes, semi-structured interviews suggest that the social sequelae of PTLDS/CLD can be equally protracted as the physical effects of this illness.
  • Quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi Membrane Proteins in Human Serum: A New Concept for Detection of Bacterial Infection. Crystal S. F. Cheung, Kyle W. Anderson, Kenia Y. Villatoro Benitez, Mark J. Soloski, John N. Aucott, Karen W. Phinney, Illarion V. Turko. Analytical Chemistry. Volume 87, Number 22, November 2015. This collaborative proof of concept report shows that a new method can accurately identify a major B. burgdorferi lipoprotein in a small sample of patients with early Lyme disease.
  • Health Care Costs, Utilization and Patterns of Care following Lyme Disease. Emily R. Adrion, John N. Aucott, Klaus W. Lemke, Jonathan P. Weiner. PLoS ONE. Volume 10, Issue 2. February 4, 2015. Healthcare claims study shows Lyme disease costs upward of $1.3 billion to treat. Read entire article
  • Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome: the neglected disease in our own backyard. Lauren A. Crowder, Victoria A. Yedlin, Eric R. Weinstein, John N. Aucott, Kathleen B. Kortte. Public Health. Volume 128, Issue 9. September 9, 2014. The need for further understanding and communication presents an opportunity for public health research and education in Lyme disease and the sequelae of PTLDS. Read abstract
  • Characteristics of seroconversion and implications for diagnosis of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome: acute and convalescent serology among a prospective cohort of early Lyme disease patients. Alison W. Rebman, Lauren A. Crowder, Allison Kirkpatrick, John N. Aucott. Clinical Rheumatology. June 13, 2014. The lack of seroconversion in a subset of patients, highlights the limitations of using serology alone in identifying early Lyme disease. Read abstract
  • Serum Inflammatory Mediators as Markers of Human Lyme Disease Activity. Mark J. Soloski, Lauren A. Crowder, Lauren J. Lahey, Catriona A. Wagner, William H. Robinson, and John N. Aucott. PLOS ONE. (2014) The levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations. Read entire article.
  • Development of a foundation for a case definition of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. John N. Aucott, Lauren A.Crowder, and Kathleen B. Kortte. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 17 (2013) This article describes the initial findings of the SLICE Study, showing results from the first prospective controlled study in the United States designed to specifically measure symptom and health related quality of life outcomes after the antibiotic treatment of early Lyme disease. Read entire article.
  • Atypical Erythema Migrans in Patients with PCR-Positive Lyme Disease. S.E. Schutzer, B.W. Berger, J.G. Krueger, M.W. Eshoo, D.J. Ecker; J.N. Aucott. Emerging Infectious Diseases • • Vol. 19, No. 5, May 2013.This report re-emphasizes that the majority of proven cases of erythema migrans do not have the text book “bull’s eye” appearance and therefor may be harder for patients and physicians to recognize as a sign of early Lyme disease. Read entire article.
  • Direct Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi from Whole Blood of Patients with Early Lyme Disease. Mark W. Eshoo, Christopher C. Crowder, Alison W. Rebman, Megan A. Rounds, Heather E. Matthews, John M. Picuri, Mark J. Soloski, David J. Ecker, Steven E. Schutzer, John N. Aucott. Published: PLoS ONE | — May 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 5 | e36825. This research collaboration shows that new state of the art methods can accurately detect the minute amount of DNA of the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi in the blood stream of patients with early untreated Lyme disease. Read entire article.
  • Bull’s-Eye and Nontarget Skin Lesions of Lyme Disease: An Internet Survey of Identification of Erythema Migrans. John N. Aucott, Lauren A.Crowder, Victoria Yedlin, and Kathleen B. Kortte. Dermatology Research and Practice, Volume 20. The results of this survey demonstrate that individuals are unfamiliar with the atypical skin manifestations of early Lyme disease. Read entire article.
  • Probable late lyme disease: a variant manifestation of untreated Borrelia burgdorferi infection. John N. Aucott, Ari Seifter, and Alison W Rebman. BMC Infectious Diseases 2012, 12:173. This review of patients seen in the community practice of medicine shows that some patients with untreated late Lyme disease may have only chronic symptoms and do not have the classic objective findings of Lyme arthritis or nerve damage. Read entire article.
  • Post-treatment Lyme Disease syndrome symptomatology and the impact on life functioning: is there something here? John N. Aucott, Alison W. Rebman, Lauren A. Crowder, & Kathleen B. Kortte. Quality of Life Research. Published online: February 1, 2012. This study aims to describe a cohort of participants with early, untreated Lyme disease, and characterize post-antibiotic treatment symptoms and functional impact of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome over time. Read entire article.
  • Sex Differences in the Clinical and Serologic Presentation of Early Lyme Disease: Results From a Retrospective Review Alison Schwarzwalder, MPH; Michael F. Schneider, MS; Alison Lydecker, MPH; and John N. Aucott, MD. Gender Medicine. Volume 7, Issue 4, 2010. This paper shows for the first time that women’s antibody responses used to diagnose Lyme disease may not be equivalent to those seen in men. Read entire article
  • The Utility of “Google Trends for Epidemiological Research: Lyme Disease as an Example. Ari Seifter, Alison Schwarzwalder, Kate Geis, John Aucott. Geospatial Health 4(2), 2010, pp. 135-137. Article examines the potential of the Internet for monitoring epidemics of disease such as Lyme. Read entire article.
  • Unusual Presentation of Lyme Disease: Horner Syndrome with Negative Serology. Candis Morrison, PhD, CRNP, Ari Seifter, and John N. Aucott, MD. J Am Board Fam Med 2009;22:219 –222. This article highlights an unusual presentation that most physicians would not consider to be a result of Lyme disease. Read entire article.
  • Diagnostic Challenges of Early Lyme Disease: Lessons from a Community Case Series John Aucott, Candis Morrison, Beatriz Munoz, Peter C Rowe, Alison Schwarzwalder and Sheila K West. BMC Infectious Diseases 2009, 9:79 Accepted: 1 June 2009. This manuscript describes the variability in the presenting symptoms of Lyme disease and difficulty with its diagnosis in the community-based practice of medicine. It shows physicians’ current, widespread difficulty in making accurate diagnosis and treatment decisions in early Lyme. Read entire article

Selected On-line and Newsletter Articles by ILADS Members

Living Well When You Don't Feel Well: Overcoming Lyme Disease and Illness | Joe Trunzo | TEDxBryantU (March 2018)

Did Infections Caused by World War I Contribute to Causing World War II?, Robert C. Bransfield. Contagion Live (January 5, 2018)

700 Articles Citing Chronic Infection Associated with Tick-Borne Diseases, compiled by Robert C. Bransfield

Aggressiveness, Violence, Homicidality, Homicide and Lyme Disease, Robert C. Bransfield.

Advances In Pleomorphic Forms of Borrelia, Presentation by Leena Meriläinen, Leona Gilbert (April 2014)

Retrospective analysis of a cohort of Internationally Case Defined Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients in a Lyme endemic area, Samuel Shor. Bulletin of the IACFS (2011)

Doctor Shopping, Savely, G. Public Health Alert January 2010,

When a Complement is Not a Compliment: The Role of C3a and C4a Complement Proteins in Chronic Lyme Disease, Savely, G. Public Health Alert (June 2009)

Advanced Topics in Lyme Disease, Dr. Joseph Burrascano Jr. (October 2008)

Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the CD57 Test but Were Too Sick to Ask, Savely, GR. Public Health Alert (August 2006)

Update on the Mysterious Disease Known as Morgellons, Savely, GR. Public Health Alert (July 2006)

Lyme Disease in Children: Nurses Can Learn to Recognize the Red Flags, Savely, GR. ADVANCE for Nurses, October 2005, 25-27.